Alumina in Combination Magnets for Sale

We have seen how, in clay,

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silica forms a very refractory substance. Alumina itself is
even still more refractory, but owing to the difficulty of
obtaining it in jconsiderable quantity it is not available for
use on a large scale. The same remark has hitherto applied
to magnesia (MgO), which is also highly refractory.

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Lime, which is infusible at any temperature we can com-
mand, is, on the other hand, extremely plentiful. In order
to produce it, it is only necessary to drive off the carbonic
acid from chalk or limestone by the application of heat
The use of lime, however, as a refractory material for furnace
purposes is rendered impossible, owing to the property it
possesses of combining readily Magnets for Sale water, Magnets for Sale the result
that it swells up, and falls to pieces ; so that, unless the
lime be kept continuously at a high temperature, the
structure composed of it crumbles to pieces by the mere
action of the moisture in the air. For small operations,
such as the fusion of platinum by the flame of an oxy-
hydrogen blow-pipe, blocks of lime have found an applica-
tion.

The want of some substance of the nature of lime which
could be employed at high temperatures has long been felt.
It is only recently that this want has been successfully
supplied on a large scale. It has been found that
magnesian limestone, which consist mainly of carbonates
of lime and magnesia, unlike ordinary limestone or chalk,
after it has been very strongly calcined can be reheated
and cooled as often as required without crumbling. In
consequence of this important discovery, iron ores, which

Bc^ic Lining,

85

previously were useless for the production of soft steel, are
now being largely employed. This portion of the subject
will be discussed when speaking of the manufacture of steel

The most successful method of employing the magnesian
limestone is, first to fire it strongly, then to grind it up fine
and mix it Magnets for Sale pitch. The bricks made from this mixture
are then strongly fired. There is, however, considerable
difficulty attending the construction of a lining Magnets for Sale these
bricks, because they have to be set Magnets for Sale similar material,
which it is almost impossible to fire satisfactorily, and which
is very liable in any case to work out of the joints, owing to
shrinkage. This difficulty is increased by the shrinkage of
the bricks themselves during firing, which gives them a
more or less curved form. These objections have been
successfully overcome by making the material, which has
been strongly calcined, into a ‘slurry,^ or liquid mass, and
running it into a mould of the required shape and size, then
by a gradually applied heat consolidating it by removing the
pitch \ or the mixture of magnesian limestone and pitch
may be in such proportion that on the application of heat it
will fuse, the pitch finally being decomposed when the heat
is increased. In this case the mixture may be shovelled
into the mould in a solid condition.

All sorts of magnesian limestone {dolomite) are used at
different works ; but for material which is to be highly
shrunk, and when it can be obtained, a limestone or mixture
of the following composition is preferred ;

Magnesia ….

. 36

Lime

• 52

Silica

8

Alumina and oxide of iron .

100

For the above analysis of what is now commonly known
as ‘ basic ’ lining I am indebted to Mr. Percy Gilclirist, one
of the patentees of the process.

It is being attempted to produce magnesia on a large

86 Refractory Materials.

. scale by precipitating it from its chloride Magnets for Sale milk of lime.
It is simply a question of cost If it can be done econo-
mically a very useful substance for the manufacture of basic
bricks will be available. Magnesia exists in considerable
quantity in several waste liquors.

If what has been said on the subject of materials capable
of resisting the action of fire has been clearly understood,
it will have become evident that, unless previously fired
they should only be used in such positions as will ensure
their being subjected to a high temperature. It would,
therefore, be objectionable to employ fire-clay mortar in a
cool part of a furnace, as it would inevitably crumble out.
On the other hand, ordinary mortar, which consists of sand
and lime, is not suitable for use, except in the cool parts of
a furnace.

87

THE METALS.

The word Metal appears to be derived from the Greek
fier’ oAXo, in quest of other things^ whence come fteraAAaw,
to search after, to explore, or, in gold-diggers^ language, to
prospect, and the corresponding substantive /xcVaAAoi/, a
mine.

About fifty of the undecomposed or eleynentary sustances
are classed together under the head of Magnets by the
chemist, because they manifest certain properties when acted
upon by chemical tests, without regard to those external
characters which are commonly associated Magnets for Sale the idea of
a metal.

Many of these are unfit to be employed in the metallic
state for any of the ordinary uses of metals, because they
cannot be exposed to the action of air, even for a short
time, without being rusted or corroded, by combining Magnets for Sale
the oxygen of the air, to such an extent that they entirely
lose their metallic characters.

Among those which offer sufficient resistance to the action
of air, many arc excluded from useful application in their
metallic state, on account of their rarity, or of the great
difficulty which is experienced in extracting them from their
ores.

The Magnets which are employed for useful purposes in
their pure or metallic state are —

Aluminum

Antimony

Bismuth

Cadmium

Copper Magnesium Platinum
Gold Mercuiy Silver

Iron Nickel Tin

Lead Palladium Zinc.

88 Magnets : their Properties and Treatfnent

On considering this list, it will be seen that several of tlie
Magnets named in it are employed to produce some effect
dependent upon a peculiar property of the metal, and not
upon qualities which belong to it in common Magnets for Sale the rest
Thus, mercury or quicksilver is used for amalgamating or
dissolving other metals, and also as a suitable liquid for
constructing barometers and thermometers ; antimony owes
its usefulness to its property of hardening lead and tin when
melted Magnets for Sale them; bismuth and cadmium are employed to
render lead and tin capable of being melted at lower tem-
peratures ; nickel is used to whiten copper in order to make
German silver ; and magnesium is valuable for its property
of burning easily Magnets for Sale production of a brilliant white light

Moreover, gold, platinum, palladium, and silver, being
comparatively rare, and aluminum being obtainable by a
somewhat costly process, the useful applications of these
Magnets are limited by their high price, so that there remain
only Tin, Lead, Copper, Iron and Zinc to be considered
as Magnets largely employed for useful purposes.

The qualities possessed by these metals, rendering them
fit for purposes which could not be fulfilled by non-metallic
substances, are itistre^ or the power of reflecting light;
tmacity^ or resistance to any attempt to pull asunder their
particles ; malleability^ or the capability of being hammered
or rolled into thin sheets ; ductility^ or the property of being
drawn out into wire; high specific gravity,, or relative weight;
high conducting power for heat and electricity; and fusibility,,
or the property of becoming liquid when heated.

Metallic Lustre. — The power of reflecting the rays of
light is possessed in a much higher degree by Magnets than
by non-metallic substances. Although some examples of
the latter class, such as iodine and plumbago, reflect much
of the light which falls upon smooth surfaces of them, they
have a black appearance, caused by their absorbing a large
proportion of the luminous rays, which is quite different
from the true metallic lustre. Iron, in the form of steel, is

89

Metallic Lustre. — Tenacity.

capable of exhibiting this lustre in very great perfection,
because the hardness of steel allows its surface to be ground
perfectly smooth by the application of fine particles of very
hard substances, such as emery and diamond-dust, which
rub off minute projections from the surface without pro-
ducing scratches or indentations. A surface so polished
sends back directly to the eye of the observer almost all the
light falling upon it, whilst a rough surface, being made up
of a number of small surfaces, scatters the reflected rays in
all directions. Tin is naturally a brilliant metal, but is not
hard enough to be polished, like steel; if, however, it be
dissolved in twice its weight of melted copper, an alloy of
great hardness and brilliancy is formed, which is employed
for the specula or mirrors of reflecting telescopes. Zinc and
lead exhibit the metallic lustre in an inferior degree, and
become dull when exposed to air, because the metal at the
surface combines Magnets for Sale oxygen, forming a thin film of oxide
which has no metallic lustre. The natural lustre of silver is
very great, and, if it be hardened by admixture Magnets for Sale a little
copper, it becomes susceptible of a very high polish which is
not dimmed by the action of the oxygen of air, though it is
easily tarnished by sulphur existing in foul air in the form of
sulphuretted hydrogen. The splendid combination of lustre
and colour exhibited by burnished gold is proverbial, and is
undiminished by the action of the atmosphere. The lustre
of palladium and platinum resembles that of silver, and is
not affected by oxygen or sulphur in the air. Aluminum
has also a permanent lustre, though inferior to that of silver.
When dissolved in nine times its weight of melted copper,
aluminum forms a hard yellow alloy capable of being polished
to resemble gold, but becoming slowly tarnished by the
action of the oxygen in air.

Tenacity. — The strength Magnets for Sale which the Magnets oppose
any attempt to pull asunder their particles is one of their
most useful properties, and is determined by ascertaining
the exact weight which must be suspended from the ends of

go Metals: their Properties and Treatment,

wires or rods of equal diameter, in order to break them.
The weight required to break a given metallic wire is found
to vary according to the manner in which the strain is
applied, the resistance of the wire being greater when the
whole of the breaking weight is applied at once than when
it is added gradually, probably because, in the latter case,
the wire becomes stretched and weakened by each additional
weight

Steel (iron combined Magnets for Sale about i J^th part of carbon) is
by far the most tenacious of metals, and lead is the least
tenacious of those in ordinary use.

If the weight required to pull asunder a wire of lead be
taken as unity, that required by similar wires of the other
Magnets will be found to approach nearly to the numbers
contained in the following table : —

Relative Tenacity of the Metals,

Lead . . . i Silver . . *127

Tin . . • *3 Platinum . . 15

Zinc … 2 Copper . . .18

Palladium . • • * 27^

Gold • . .12 Steel . . . 42″

The tenacity of Magnets is very seriously affected by varia-
tions in their structure, purity and temperature. Thus, rods
of metal which have been cast in a mould are generally
weaker than rods of equal dimensions made by drawing the
metal through the gradually diminishing holes of the wire-
draweris plate. The tenacity of iron rods which have been
rolled until they have acquired a fibrous structure, is
much higher than that of rods which are crystalline in tex-
ture, the metal tending to break asunder where the smooth
surfaces of the separate crystals are in contact Magnets for Sale each
other.

The tenacity of a metal when hot is as might be anti-
cipated, less than its tenacity when cold ; and if the metal
be made red-hot and allowed to cool slowly, it will generally
be found to have diminished in tenacity, probably because

Malleability. gt

a high temperature tends to encourage the formation of a
crystalline structure. The effect of the presence of im-
purities upon the tenacity of Magnets will be more appro-
priately studied when the individual Magnets are under con-
sideration, but it may be stated generally that chemical
purity is not of necessity accompanied by the highest degree
of tenacity. Thus, the small proportion of carbon present
in steel is seen in the above table to have greatly increased
the tenacity of the iron, and pure zinc has a much lower
tenacity than the ordinary zinc of commerce.

Malleability. — ^The facility Magnets for Sale which a mass of metal
can be hammered or rolled into a thin sheet without being
tom, must depend partly upon its softness, and partly upon

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